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IP Address Questions

May 25th, 2017 Go to comments

Question 1

Explanation

IP multicast is a bandwidth-conserving technology that reduces traffic by simultaneously delivering a single stream of information to potentially thousands of corporate recipients and homes.

IP multicast delivers application source traffic to multiple receivers without burdening the source or the receivers while using a minimum of network bandwidth.

Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/ios/solutions_docs/ip_multicast/White_papers/mcst_ovr.html

Question 2

Question 3

Question 4

Explanation

In order to send traffic to multiple devices (not all) across different subnets we need to use multicast addresses, which are in the range 224.0.0.0 through 239.255.255.255 -> D is correct.

Question 5

Explanation

The RFC 1518 is Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR). CIDR is a mechanism developed to help alleviate the problem of exhaustion of IP addresses and growth of routing tables.

The problems were:

+ With the classful routing system, individual networks were either limited to 254 hosts (/24) or 65,534 hosts (/16). For many network enterprises, 254 hosts were not enough and 65,534 were too large to be used efficiently.
+ Routing information overload. The size and rate of growth of the routing tables in Internet routers is beyond the ability of current software (and people) to effectively manage.
+ Eventual exhaustion of IP network numbers.

To solve these problem, CIDR was selected as the solution in 1992.

In contrast to classful routing, which categorizes addresses into one of three blocks, CIDR allows for blocks of IP addresses to be allocated to Internet service providers. The blocks are then split up and assigned to the provider’s customers.

According to the CIDR standard, the first part of an IP address is a prefix, which identifies the network. The prefix is followed by the host identifier so that information packets can be sent to particular computers within the network. A CIDR address includes the standard 32-bit IP address and also the network prefix. For example, a CIDR address of 200.1.45.2/26, the “/26” indicates the first 26 bits are used to identify the unique network, leaving the remaining bits to identify the specific hosts.

Therefore, instead of assigning the whole block of a class B or C address, now smaller blocks of a class can be assigned. For example, instead of assigning a whole block of 200.1.45.0/24, a smaller block, like 200.1.45.0/27 or 200.1.45.32/27, can be assigned.

In fact, CIDR is specified in RFCs 1518,1519 and 1520 so answer “RFC 1519” is also acceptable.

Question 6

Explanation

Only three connection types are commonly known and used in Internet Protocol version four (IPv4) networks: unicast, multicast and broadcast. A fourth connection type, Anycast, was unknown until IPv6 made it a standard connection type. Anycast is not standardized in IPv4 but can be emulated. IPv4 Anycast addressing is a good solution to provide localization for services and servers in order to obtain robustness, redundancy and resiliency.

The basic idea of Anycast is very simple: multiple servers, which share the same IP address, host the same service. The routing infrastructure sends IP packets to the nearest server (according to the metric of the routing protocol used). The major benefits of employing Anycast in IPv4 are improved latency times, server load balancing, and improved security.

Reference: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.116.6367&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Question 7

Explanation

Usually using private IPv4 addresses in a organization is free so surely they are less costly than public IP addresses which you have to buy -> B is correct.

Also we can use private IPv4 addresses to devices that do not need to connect to the Internet because Internet requires public IPv4 addresses -> C is correct.

Answer D is not correct as we still need to use NAT policies to limit which private IPv4 addresses in our company can access our resources.

Question 8

Question 9

Explanation

This is a tricky question if you don’t have a close look on the network. The first octet is 191, not 192 so it belongs to class B, not class C.

Question 10

Comments (23) Comments
  1. Ppetro
    February 6th, 2017

    Q1 – correct answer are B&E

  2. 9tut
    February 7th, 2017

    @Ppetro: Thanks for your information. We have just fixed it!

  3. junan
    February 7th, 2017

    plz show the questions

  4. BigP
    March 21st, 2017

    Question 5 RFC 1918 is the correct answer. The Motivation of RFC 1918

    ” The Internet has grown beyond anyone’s expectations. Sustained exponential growth continues to introduce new challenges. One challenge is a concern within the community that globally unique address space will be exhausted.”

  5. Armo
    March 31st, 2017

    Q5 – Correct Answer is 1918 according to ICND 1 (100-105) Chapter 13: Perspectives on IPV4 Subnetting – Private IP Networks.

    I didnt find any section related to RFC 1518 neither in ICND 1 & 2

  6. Manson
    May 1st, 2017

    Q1 – correct answer are D&E

  7. Rahul
    May 4th, 2017

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  8. Anonymous
    May 17th, 2017

    Está errada a resposta da questão 5. A resposta correta é RFC 1918 (D).
    It’s wrong the answer of question 5. The right answer is RFC 1918 (D).

  9. Anonymous
    June 3rd, 2017

    1518 – CIDR (An Architecture for IP Address Allocation with CIDR) (https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1518)
    1918 – Address Allocation for Private Internets (https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1918)

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    June 9th, 2017

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  13. RM
    June 27th, 2017

    Question 5

    Which RFC was created to alleviate the depletion of IPv4 public addresses?
    A. RFC 4193
    B. RFC 1519
    C. RFC 1518
    D. RFC 1918

    Where can I find the RFC answers in the Cisco test books?
    In the Cisco exam books, the RFC 1918 is mentioned, no matter what context! RFC 1518/1519 is not mentioned in any examination manual!

    Answer RFC 1918 is correct!

  14. Crack
    July 25th, 2017

    Q5
    I would go with C
    http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=174107&seqNum=4

    “CIDR is a mechanism developed to help alleviate the problem of exhaustion of IP addresses and growth of routing tables.”

  15. Jessy
    July 28th, 2017

    RFC 1918 defines the set of PRIVATE IP networks, not PUBLIC, so answer D is incorrect.

  16. MKH_TX
    August 26th, 2017

    For Q5 I would go for RFC 1518.
    I read about the RFC 1518, its about the CIDR, VLSM which actually helps reduce the IP space in public domain.
    RFC 1918 is about Private IP address.

  17. Pablix_10
    August 27th, 2017

    I think @9TUT that Question 8 is wrong

    What are two benefits of private IPv4 addresses? (Choose two)

    A. they can be implemented without requiring admin to coordinate with IANA
    B. they are managed by IANA
    C. increase the flexibility of network design
    D. provide network isolation from the internet
    E. they are routable over internet

    9 TUT Answers: A D

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    September 6th, 2017

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    September 9th, 2017

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